The previous climate summit, COP 26 held in 2021 in Glasgow, left many issues unresolved. Its promises put us on the path of between 1.8 and 2.4 degrees Celsius of warming, well above the safe limits for humanity. In addition, rich countries failed to meet their commitment to provide $100 billion annually in climate finance to support the most vulnerable countries. For this reason and more, the 27th summit being held in November 2022 in Egypt has a lot of work to do. The effects of the climate crisis are devastating: a third of Pakistan under water, Europe's hottest summer in 500 years, more than a million people displaced by the worst floods Nigeria has suffered, historic droughts in Europe and the Horn of Africa, catastrophic wildfires in California. Just to name a few examples. The need for decisive climate action has never been greater.
However, despite the very strong pressures of society and many activist groups, the prospects are not good. Egypt had a political situation that was very unfavourable to social dialogue, struggles for human rights were violently repressed and, moreover, it was not very inclined to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. This is in addition to the current global geopolitical, energy and economic scenario, and the scarce representation of key Heads of State. Not only Russia was absent, for obvious reasons. For example, the new president of Brazil, Lula da Silva, was invited, but the president is still, in practice, the denialist Jair Bolsonaro.
The four aspects that can be seen to be urgent following the previous COP are:
1) The ambiguity about the inescapable and indispensable elimination of government subsidies for fossil fuels.
2) Aid to poor and vulnerable countries, an aid estimated at 100 billion dollars per year and that has not yet become a reality.
3) The reform of article 6, related to the emissions market and which we have seen how the US proposed to maintain with an offer that countries such as the US could continue to buy emission rights from third countries, something that has really not managed to convince anyone since it does not effectively solve the problem of climate change and conditions the development of the poorest countries.
4) Develop a mechanism that achieves a "general mitigation of global emissions" and not only NDCs (nationally determined contributions).