SP (Surge Protector)
This is another item that is obligatory in newly installed electrical panels in order to enhance safety. The surge protector, as its name indicates, protects the home’s electrical apparatuses from being damaged by power surges regardless of their nature.
These voltage peaks may be caused, for example, if lightning strikes during a storm, and may cause damage to the equipment, to the installation and even to people. In the event of a surge, the SP will act as a shield deviating the current to the earth connection, thus avoiding damage to electrical appliances.
DS (Differential Switch)
The Differential Switch is different from the others. It is easily recognised because it has a swivel lever with it, more commonly called a lock screw. This element protects the installation against current leakages, preventing a “spark” (or something worse still) if we touch a domestic appliance with a loose cable. That’s why, if at any time, the DS shuts off, it’s because a current leakage occurred due to an anomaly in the installation or a defective domestic appliance.
As a general rule, there tends to be a differential for each electrical installation, but depending on the size of the property, there may be two or three to control the different areas of the premises.
SPS (Small Power Switches)
These switches separately control the supplying of electricity to different domestic appliances and electric circuits: washing machines, lighting, refrigerators, outlets, etc. They are always together. They are inseparable, like good siblings, and if they detect an excess consumptionin one part of the home, the switch concerned disconnects automatically. Thus, only that area is left without electricity, and not the rest of the property.
Like the PCS and AGS, they are magneto-thermal circuit breakers and serve to cut off the electricity manually or automatically, and independently of the apparatuses that depend on them in the event of shortcircuiting or overloading.
SPSs are also useful for construction or maintenance tasks, giving the opportunity to deprive a certain part of the installation of electricity without having to disconnect the entire supply.