In most homes and electrical installations, the electrical panel is regulated by the PCS. The Power Control Switch (PCS) is not very smart but knows what it's doing: if you exceed your power limit (or if it detects a short circuit), the electricity cuts off.
When this happens (when the fuse blows, as they used to say), it needn't be a problem. Resetting the meter to get your electricity back is a quick and simple procedure.
But why did the PCS do this to you? Essentially, for your safety. Your home has a contracted power limit that marks the number of kWs that can be used at the same time. So, if you turn on more and more appliances (washing machine + electric over + air conditioning + vacuum cleaner, etc.) the kWs accumulate and reach a point when the PCS blows.
If you have issues with this kW limit (because you think it is too high or too low), you should check whether your contracted power is adequate for your home.
However, in some electrical installations, there is no PCS. Instead, there is a maximeter, a device that enables the power limit to be exceeded.